Ardelyx is working towards first-in-class drugs to treat hyperkalemia in CKD/ESRD patients. Hyperkalemia remains a significant issue hindering generalized use of aldosterone receptor antagonists (e.g., eplerenone). Current therapies (potassium binders) are suboptimal, requiring high doses of resin and introducing ions (Na+, Ca++ or H+) that create further electrolyte imbalance. Ardelyx’s RDX013 program emphasizes non-systemic colonic potassium channel openers to increase colonic secretion of K+, providing an extra-renal secretory pathway. The potential competitive advantage of our approach versus potassium binders on the market or in development resides in dose reduction, reduced GI side effects and absence of added ions.